The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016

PART III Insolvency Resolution and Bankruptcy for Individuals and Partnership Firms

CHAPTER V Administration and Distribution of The Estate of the Bankrupt

Section 164: Undervalued transactions:

*164. (1) The bankruptcy trustee may apply to the Adjudicating Authority for an order under this section in respect of an undervalued transaction between a bankrupt and any person.

(2) The undervalued transaction referred to in sub-section (1) should have—

(a) been entered into during the period of two years ending on the filing of the application for bankruptcy; and

(b) caused bankruptcy process to be triggered.

(3) A transaction between a bankrupt and his associate entered into during the period of two years preceding the date of making of the application for bankruptcy shall be deemed to be an undervalued transaction under this section.

(4) On the application of the bankruptcy trustee under sub-section (1), the Adjudicating Authority may—

(a) pass an order declaring an undervalued transaction void;

(b) pass an order requiring any property transferred as a part of an undervalued transaction to be vested with the bankruptcy trustee as a part of the estate of the bankrupt; and

(c) pass any other order it thinks fit for restoring the position to what it would have been if the bankrupt had not entered into the undervalued transaction.

(5) The order under clause (a) of sub-section (4) shall not be passed if it is proved by the bankrupt that the transaction was undertaken in the ordinary course of business of the bankrupt:

      Provided that the provisions of this sub-section shall not be applicable to undervalued transaction entered into between a bankrupt and his associate under sub-section (3) of this section.

(6) For the purposes of this section, a bankrupt enters into an undervalued transaction with any person if—

(a) he makes a gift to that person;

(b) no consideration has been received by that person from the bankrupt;

(c) it is in consideration of marriage; or

(d) it is for a consideration, the value of which in money or money’s worth is significantly less than the value in money or money’s worth of the consideration provided by the bankrupt.


Notifications & Circulars

*Only in so far as they relate to personal guarantors to corporate debtors, shall come into force w.e.f. 01.12.2019.